A few years ago, a man named Rafael Gomes set off on a trip to Brazil, hoping to get to the Moon.
In Rio de Janeiro, he met a group of young scientists from Brazil and Peru who were studying what happened to the planet during the end of the Ice Age.
After a week on the ground, the trio came back with a startling discovery: The climate on Earth during that time was different from what scientists expected.
The temperature in Brazil dropped by almost half.
It was warmer than the climate expected.
But, in Peru, Gomes met the same group of scientists who had previously studied climate change in Antarctica.
These scientists had previously predicted that climate change was not caused by humans, but that it was the result of the El Niño weather pattern, a natural climate variation that occurs when the world’s oceans warm.
In the Antarctic, Games found a much different story.
It turned out that the El Nino pattern that the scientists had predicted did not exist.
Instead, it was caused by human-caused global warming.
The climate in Peru is warmer than in Brazil, and the heat wave there was caused, in part, by warming.
What did these scientists do with this new knowledge?
They went back to their research, and they began to understand what had changed.
“We saw that the warming that was happening in Peru was caused in part by the change in the Earth’s climate,” says Daniela Almeida, an associate professor of atmospheric science at the University of the Andes.
“And that this warming was not the result just of humans.
It also had to do with changes in the greenhouse effect that is generated by the atmosphere.”
Climate change has been studied since the 1970s, when the first global measurements of global temperatures were taken.
The measurements revealed that global temperatures had been rising at a rate of about 1.8 degrees Celsius per decade for the past 150 years.
That’s about one degree of warming each decade.
The reason that’s happened was the Earth had been warming much faster than expected.
Scientists have known for decades that the Earth was warming faster than it should have been.
“In a nutshell, there was this big gap between the predictions of scientists that we were making,” Almeeda says.
In a study published in 2016, Almeidas and her colleagues, including colleagues from the University Of Oxford, calculated that between the late 1990s and early 2020s, temperatures had increased by 0.6 to 2.8°C per decade, depending on the time of year.
That was enough to increase global sea levels by about 50 meters.
It’s important to note that the researchers also calculated that the change was more gradual than predicted.
In other words, the researchers were not comparing a warmer climate with a cooler climate.
Almeadas and her team were comparing a slower, but still detectable warming.
“The result was that it took many decades to show that the temperature was not rising in the same way that scientists had thought,” AlMeidas says.
What they found was that the rate of change of the Earth wasn’t uniform across time.
The Earth was getting warmer faster and slower over time.
There was no linear relationship between temperature and rainfall or heat waves.
There were different times and places where temperature was increasing or decreasing.
“These are very complex patterns,” says John Schmitt, a professor of earth and planetary science at University College London, who was not involved in the study.
“There’s no single cause for the change that we saw in Peru.
It could have been the effect of a warming planet, or it could have come from human-induced warming.”
It’s unclear what caused the El Niños, or the warming climate patterns that were observed, but climate change is occurring in all the places where scientists are measuring it.
“Climate change is happening in the tropics, it’s happening in all of our tropical regions, and it’s not going to stop anytime soon,” Al-Meida says.
Climate change is also happening in tropical and subtropical regions of the world, as well as on land.
But the scientists also found that El Niño events have occurred in Antarctica as well.
In 2015, the Antarctic was experiencing the warmest El Niño on record.
And this past year, scientists found that the Antarctic experienced El Niño at its warmest temperature ever recorded.
So scientists are starting to think that the tropic and subtopic El Niquos are part of the same cycle, and that they are occurring in tandem.
In addition, there is another theory that says El Nijos happen more frequently in tropical regions because they’re colder.
This theory has been proposed by Michael Mann, a climate researcher at Pennsylvania State University, who has worked on a climate model that predicts El Niño will be stronger in the Pacific.
In that model, it would take a warmer tropical climate to produce an El Niño event.
But what scientists don’t